Investopedia Academy – Forex Trading for Beginners By John

Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Swaps* (*But Were Afraid To Ask)

Hello, dummies
It's your old pal, Fuzzy.
As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great.
What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. I do my bit to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post.
That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets - spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way.
We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps.
Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy.
TL;DR? Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle.
Ready? Let's get started.
1. The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life
The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third outcome. If you hedged against the possibility of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows:
Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself.
Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part.
You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus.
That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically. In wallstreetbets terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it.
Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets?
2. A Hedging Taxonomy
The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now.
(i) Swaps
A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one.
Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered.
The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game.
I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise! - the rate gets better after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging.
There are many different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested.
Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure).
(ii) Forwards
A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me.
Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways.
People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances.
These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them.
(iii) Collars
No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray!
To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts.
(3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs
You may have heard about the mythical ISDA. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years.
First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA.
Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire.
Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking?
Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt. They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama.
Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details.
I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here.
Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post.
*EDIT 1\* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
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https://www.m1finance.com/articles-2/best-financial-websites/

What are the best financial websites?
The best financial sites offer a wealth of resources to people ranging from beginning investors to seasoned professionals. Some of these websites come from recognized leading financial media sources while others offer personal and investment financial advice from bloggers who have been successful. We have compiled a list of the best financial sites and finance blogs that you should include in your list of reading.
Why should I read the top financial websites?
In the past, people had to rely on financial advisors to gain information and education about finance. That notion has changed with the availability of the internet. There is a variety of top financial websites with more coming online each day. Since not everyone has a background in finance, reading some of the best websites is a great way for you to become more educated and confident about finance.
When did financial advice websites begin?
Financial websites started in the late 1990s with many more coming online in the 2000s. Some, such as Bankrate, started out in print decades ago before transforming into one of the best financial websites. Financial planning websites can help you to learn how to manage your money and to build wealth in a more effective way.
Learn about the best financial websites and financial blogs from M1 Finance Users of the best financial websites today
According to data from Statista, the top three leading finance websites by visitors include Yahoo! Finance with 70 million visitors per month, MSN Money Central with 65 million monthly visitors, and CNN Money with 50 million monthly visitors. The need for financial education and literacy is clear. According to the Financial Educators Council, the average test result for financial literacy across all age groups was a low 63%.
According to the Next Web, more than one million new users of the internet are coming online every day. There are reportedly over 4.3 billion internet users who are now online around the world. The global reach of the internet makes it an ideal vehicle for helping people around the world to become financially literate.
What are some of the best general financial websites?
These best financial websites are leaders in the provision of general financial information. Investors of all levels can benefit by making it a habit to read these top financial websites on a regular basis.
Yahoo!Finance
Yahoo! Finance aggregates finance news from around the internet. It also allows you to purchase company reports. You can find charts, price quotes, information about competitor companies, earnings reports and key ratios for free.
CNBC Markets
CNBC Markets provides up-to-date news about the global markets. In the news section, you can find listings of developments in the U.S. stock markets as well as for developments across Europe and Asia.
Forbes Money
Forbes Money is a leader in the finance and business world. Readers who are invested in topics such as investing, business and leadership can all find something that appeals to them in Forbes. In addition to finance topics, Forbes also covers related financial areas.
Investing.com
Investing.com is one of the best financial sites for people who are interested in active trading. On the home page, you can view forex prices, ETFs, commodities prices and futures contracts. The news section offers in-depth articles. Investors check this site daily to see current quotes for a variety of different investments.
Bloomberg
Bloomberg is one of the best financial websites for market data. On its news section, you can choose from different categories by region, general financial information, industry and asset class. You can see the historical information for a queried stock, which is helpful in identifying how different types of news reports impact the performance of the stock.
Reuters
Reuters is another website for obtaining market data. It offers broad coverage of stock news, sector news and market news. You can also find historical information, as well as an auto-complete stock name feature that is helpful search tool.
GoogleFinance
GoogleFinance is one of the best financial sites because of its search functionality. You can find an abundance of information about price quotes, news, competitor companies, earnings reports and key ratios. Keep in mind that some news items are not in real-time.
Read about the best financial websites and financial blogs from M1 Finance The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal has been released in print format since 1989. Online, it is reviewed as one of the top financial websites around the world. Readers from across the globe subscribe to the Wall Street Journal for its business news. The WSJ also offers its readers email alerts about news and stock information.
Investopedia
Investopedia is one of the best financial websites because of its emphasis on financial education. You are able to start a watchlist to track your stocks and can take courses on investing through its Investopedia Academy. The many articles offered by Investopedia is a rich resource for people who want to learn more about the stock market and financial principles.
Financial Times
The Financial Times is another leading publication that is read around the world. It offers comprehensive international coverage of financial news. However, you are only able to read the headlines for free. With a paid subscription, you can read the detailed news reports and gain access to diversified content.
NerdWallet
NerdWallet is one of the best financial websites for comparisons. The site allows you to compare investment accounts, high-yield savings accounts, CDs, debit cards, mortgages and credit cards. The site releases a best list for every category annually.
The Economist
The Economist is another go-to source for the latest in international news. It is authoritative and offers in-depth coverage of politics, finance, business, technology and science.
BankRate
BankRate was launched in 1976 as a newsletter and is highly respected. It has become one of the best financial websites available on the internet. You can find a wealth of data on mortgages, bank rates and credit cards. It also offers online financial advice about financial planning, investing and saving for retirement.
Barron’s
Barron’s is a weekly newspaper that has been published since 1921. On its website, it provides news about market developments in the U.S., financial information and related statistics. The website contains interest sections with in-depth coverage contained within each. Latest financial news can be found on its home page, while interest sections include technology, retirement, options and funds.
SEC
The SEC offers primary source material such as the quarterly and annual financial reports that have been filed with the SEC. These include publicly-traded companies’ filings. All of this data can be accessed through EDGAR on the SEC’s website by searching for a stock ticker symbol or the name of a company.
Kiplinger
Kiplinger ranks as one of the top financial advice websites. It is a sound resource for financial advice with coverage on how to save money and avoid fees. Kiplinger has a section that covers the basics of personal finance and has quizzes on a variety of finance topics.
Motley Fool
The Motley Fool offers investors in-depth analysis on general financial information. It also has stock market analyses and insights. While the name might be odd, the financial services company encourages its readers to become financially independent through information and research. Access to advice from experts is offered for an additional charge.
Money Morning
Money Morning boasts a free daily newsletter on information that can help you to become financially independent. The site’s layout is divided into major categories as well as hot topics sections. You can find advice on different stocks with in-depth analyses.
What are some of the best financial websites for stocks and trading?
If you are wanting to focus on the best financial websites for stocks, you can cut down your search time by including in your reading these best financial sites that we have listed for you. Each of these sites allows you to get the information that you need about different stocks and companies so that you can make informed investment decisions.
Investigate the best financial websites and financial blogs from M1 Finance CNN Markets
CNN is among the top news networks in the world. It has a markets section that simplifies browsing of economic news. The markets section contains current financial news, commodities changes, trending stocks and much more. Each of these topics has its own dedicated page for more in-depth information. If you want a fast update about the market news, CNN is a great source.
MarketWatch
MarketWatch has a news viewer section that gives you access to stories that have timestamps. News items are automatically updated, and its coverage includes global stock markets, forex, commodities and other classes of assets. It also offers data about macroeconomics and fundamental analysis information.
Seeking Alpha
Seeking Alpha aggregates data from other financial sites. You can find trending finance articles from across the internet together with the top-performing stocks and recent news. Seeking Alpha articles range from types of investment to investment strategies.
NASDAQ
NASDAQ offers the latest analysis and stock market news. You can find information on companies and their competitors, the latest news and see how the markets are performing. The site also provides quote updates and financial tools to aid in your investing endeavors.
Morningstar
Morningstar allows you to view annual returns of ETFs and mutual funds for the past 10 years. Quarterly and monthly returns for the past five years are also available on this site. You can review the after-tax returns of different funds so that you can gain a better idea of investor earnings.
The Street
The Street is one of the best financial sites for news about investing. When you read The Street, you can find opinions, recommendations, current events and how to get started in the market. There are also paid services that are available to investors, including market analyses and advanced strategies.
Zacks Investment Research
Zacks Investment Research requires you to sign up for a free membership to gain access to its data on funds and stocks. You are able to use this site to conduct comprehensive research. Zacks gives you access to independent reports that can help you when you are trying to build a well-diversified portfolio.
Review the best financial websites and financial blogs from M1 Finance NYSE
If you are invested in the stock market, the NYSE should be included on your list of best financial sites to read. The NYSE access includes listings information, markets, historical and real-time market data. All investors should make a habit of checking the NYSE’s site on a regular basis to stay informed.
What are some of the best financial blog sites?
Our list of best financial websites contains multiple finance blogs. These blogs offer online financial advice and financial planning tools while also providing answers to common investing questions. A list of the best financial sites would not be complete without including these top financial websites.
The Balance
The Balance offers articles that are divided into categories such as retirement, investing, debt management and banking. The articles give advice about many areas of finance and aim to increase your financial literacy.
Wise Bread
Wise Bread is a community of personal finance bloggers and finance experts. The goal is to help people to live well financially and to derive more enjoyment out of life. It includes multiple sections, including personal finance, frugal living, life hacks, credit cards and career advice.
Financial Post
The Financial Post offers a mix of financial news and analysis together with personal finance advice. The site targets a range of people from young investors to high net worth investors.
Money Crashers
Money Crashers is a comprehensive site that covers nearly all things related to finance. You can find information about debt, credit, investments, living frugally, small business and family. The goal is to educate those who are looking to make sound financial decisions.
The Simple Dollar
The Simple Dollar, written by the author of “365 Ways to Live Cheap!”, provides numerous tips for frugal living. It is one of the best financial planning websites for people who are wanting to gain control of their finances. Reading this blog can give you answers to your financial questions about how to reduce your expenses so that you can live within your means.
Good Financial Cents
Good Financial Cents is one of the best financial sites for people who want to learn about personal finance. It is written by Jeff Rose, who also has a YouTube Channel featuring many of his blog topics. The focus of this certified financial advisor’s blog is to educate people on how to become financially independent.
Financial Samurai
The Financial Samurai was established in 2009 by Sam Dogen. He was able to leave his job in corporate America after 13 years by saving at least 50% of his after-tax income from the time that he began his professional job. He invested his savings in real estate, bonds, stocks and CDs in order to have enough passive income to be able to quit his job and focus on his blog. He offers information about wealth management, financial products, real estate and more.
Dave Ramsey
Dave Ramsey is a well-known expert in the finance field who offers financial planning tools and personal finance education. His blog is recognized as one of the top financial planning websites and is used by millions of people to learn how to build wealth, reduce debt and increase their savings.
Mint Life
Mint Life is among the best financial sites for people who are looking for a broad personal finance resource. The blog contains a large list of money management categories with a range of articles available in each. The categories include everything from student finances, housing finances, food budgets, to much more.
Mr. Money Mustache
Mr. Money Mustache is a credible finance site with a quirky name. The author, who was able to retire at age 30, started his blog in 2005 when he was 36 years old. The blog’s mission is to allow you to learn how to live below your means and to build your savings quickly so that you can retire early, too.
Incorporating some of the best financial websites into your daily life can help you to learn more about how you can attain financial freedom by budgeting, living frugally and making saving a habit. You can take the information that you learn from these sites and apply it when you invest with M1 Finance.
Learn how M1 can empower you to manage your money and earn more
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The Forex Indicator Number One!

Hello folk,
I wanted to share my biggest experience on how to trade the forex market.
I got to know that the smart money is in the yield market. Everything what happens in world shows the yield market. And there is one rule for currencies and their strength.
“Currencies follow yields/ interest rate”
It’s simple and you have to repeat this sentence hundreds of times in your mind. Currencies follow yields, since the interest rate tells you how worth the money is. It’s the only measurement for money. That’s what the central banks tell you, how much worth is the currency.
Now you might ask “You want me to wait for interest rate decisions of the central banks?” No! I’m telling you, read what the bond market is telling you. How is the 10years Treasury Yield moving? How is the shape of the Yield Curve and where is it going? It tells you about the economy conditions (in this case the USA) and most important the inflation. Every country has bonds they sell to get loan. In Europe you take an eye on Germany, France and Italy since they are the most strongest countries in Europe.
“So you are telling me, checking the yield curve tells me about how much worth the money is, the economy conditions and most important the inflation?” Yes!!
“What is the Yield Curve and how to understand the spread between US 10y and Japan 10y yields?”
Well, this takes to much to explain. I can tell you this: Spread between 2 Yields from different countries tells you where the currency pair will go! You can learn about the Yield Curve a lot in the internet.
Most important Links:
The Bond Market as a Forecaster for Economic Conditions
All about the Yield Curve
Steepening and Flattening Yield Curve
Bond Spreads: A Leading Indicator For Forex
I can recommend you: Read everything you can find about yields, yield curve, yield market, yield predictions, economic influence in bond yields and all the working papers which you can find in the internet about the yield curve. And if you are really smart, make an excel sheet out of it and trade the currency market like a pro.
“Currencies follow yields/ interest rate”
EDIT:
The following links are informative for you too:
Yields of all maturities and the YIELD CURVE:
World Government Bonds
To track all central bank monetary policies:
Global Monetary Policy
submitted by Ken_Edwards to Forex [link] [comments]

What Is an Investor

What Is an Investor
investor
Neither a speculator (who chooses about high-risk for high wages) nor a gambler (who wants to the chance of overall reduction for outside of percentage benefits) however one that whose primary targets are worth of their authentic expenditure (the primary), a stable cash flow, along with capital appreciation. See investment.
Investors can additionally embrace various current marketplace plans. Exotic traders tend to get and maintain numerous current industry indicators and could maximize their allocation burdens into specific strength categories centered on regulations like contemporary Portfolio principle ‘s (MPT) mean-variance optimization.
The others might be stock-pickers who make investments by the first examination of business financial statements and financial ratios.
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An investor, an average of, is manufactured differently by an individual dealer. An investor places richesse to make utilize of to get long term profit, though a broker attempts to build short term earnings by purchasing and selling stocks within and more.
Investors usually create returns by leveraging capital since equity or debt investments. Equity investments involve possession bets in the shape of firm stock that can pay gains as well as funding profits.
Financial debt investments could function loans long to new folks or businesses, or even at the buying bonds issued by authorities or firms that cover attention within the sort of vouchers.
Realtors are associations like commercial businesses or mutual funds which make investments in shares as well as different financial tools and also build large portfolios.
Many times, they can collect and swim money by several large shareholders (businesses or individuals ) as a way to shoot more significant investments.
As a result, the institutional traders frequently have much-increased industry strength and sway compared to retail traders.
One case of the is the”worth” traders that want to buy stocks using very lower share costs relative for their publication price.
The others Might Want to speculate long term in”growth” Shares That Might Be losing cash Right Now however indeed are increasing quickly and maintain guarantee for your long run, A large selection of investment vehicles exist for example (although not confined by ) shares, bonds, commodities, mutual capital, exchange-traded finances (ETFs), options, stocks, forex currency, silver, gold, retirement ideas along with property estate.
Investors usually do the fundamental or technical investigation to find out favorable investment chances, and also generally want to lessen risk while maximizing yields. Investors aren’t just a regular group.
They’ve varying hazard tolerances, funding, fashions, choices, and period frames. For example, many traders might favor incredibly low-risk investments that’ll cause traditional profits, like certificates of deposits plus specified bond solutions.
Other shareholders, on the other hand, tend to be more prone to undertake additional hazard to generate more significant earnings. These traders could put money into monies, rising stocks or markets.

Types of investors

There are two types of investors,
  1. Retail investor
  2. Institutional investor

1)Retail investor

  • Folks gaming in games of probability.
  • Individual Traders (such as trusts concerning folks, and also umbrella businesses formed by 2 or more even more to pool investment funds)
  • Collectors of art, antiques, and also other items of significance
  • Angel Traders (people and bands )
  • Sweat equity investor

2)Institutional investor

  • Investors could even be labelled depending on their fashions. Inside this regard, a significant distinguishing invest or psych attribute is hazard frame of mind.
  • Investment funding along with with private-equity funding, that function as expenditure decision collectives concerning an individual, employers, retirement programs, insurance policy policies coverage reservations, or alternative capital.
  • Businesses which create trades, either directly or through a property lender
  • Expenditure frees, such as property investment expects
  • Mutual funds, hedge Finances, along with alternative capital, ownership of that Might or Might not be openly traded(these Cash generally pool cash increased out of their owner-subscribers to Put Money into securities) Sovereign riches funding

Role of the financier

Financier is. Particular financier paths require licenses and degrees for example partnership capitalists, hedge-fund supervisors, believe in finance supervisors, accountants, stock brokers, monetary advisors, or even perhaps people treasurers.
Particular investing about the opposite side doesn’t have requirements and also can be ready to accept all with the way of this stock-market or from the method of mouth-watering asks to get your own money.
Even a financier”is likely to undoubtedly be a more technical financial contributor from the feeling it has encounter in liquidating the kind of agency it’s committing to”.
Even a financier is an individual whose chief job is facilitating or straight supplying investments into up-and-coming or recognized firms and businesses, usually involving significant amounts of cash plus generally involving personal equity and also venture capital, mergers and acquisitions, leveraged buyouts, corporate fund, investment banking, or even broad asset direction.
Even a financier earns money using this technique when their investment has been reimbursed with attention, from a portion of their provider’s equity given in their mind specified from the business bargain, or even perhaps a financier could earn money utilising commission, overall functionality, and direction service charges.
Even a financier may foster the achievement of the business by permitting the company to benefit from their financier’s standing. Competent and the capable that the financier will be the higher the financier should have the ability to donate towards the victory of this thing that is funded, and also the benefit that the financier will undoubtedly reap. The definition of, financier, is French, also derives out of the fund or even cost. (original post)
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LVX Token is the Ultimate Game-Changer that will Completely Open the Derivatives Market!

LVX Token is the Ultimate Game-Changer that will Completely Open the Derivatives Market!
https://preview.redd.it/kwxqpewxxsz11.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=853089f6dbc5f104b807fb33e70820233c9baf8a
The crash happened. Not once, not twice, but certainly more than thrice. It is as thrilling as it is uncertain. It is Bitcoin and Morgan Stanley said it is behaving a lot like how Nasdaq did in the dot-com bubble but 15 times faster.
Investors with high-risk appetite love Bitcoin’s speculative trading patterns because it comes with juicy high-yield returns. Having said that, there are not many high-risk investors in the global investment market because the bulk of the population consists of many other types of investors who do not find Bitcoin an attractive investment for their portfolios. They label Bitcoin as “a volatile store of value” and veer away for safety.
Being the first cryptocurrency to emerge from Blockchain technology, Bitcoin forged the perception of price-instability, risk and volatility. But eight years have since passed and the more recent BlockChain technologies like Ethereum emerged with multiple platforms that innovate and disrupt many industries. These platforms shift the focus away from cryptocurrencies as financial tools and move it more toward a utilitarian purpose that promises to be stable enough for everyday use, yet lucrative enough as an investment vehicle.
This is huge because the demand for a stable coin or token can easily surpass the demand for volatile cryptocurrency. If a coin or token demonstrates the ability to be as stable as say the US Dollar, people would be comfortable to buy, sell or invest with it daily. When that happens, the masses would become active users of the platform, and this creates a robust, vibrant and fundamentally solid digital economy that could grow big enough to rival any given country’s GDP growth.
LVX: DESIGNED FOR LONG TERM GROWTH The LVX token is a great example of a price-stable coin. It is a native token on Level01, the World’s First Brokerless Derivatives Exchange in Partnership with Thomson Reuters. The LVX token is designed to be a universal asset currency on the platform as it can be used to trade all kinds of derivatives like crypto currencies, commodities, forex and stocks; it can also be converted to Bitcoin or Ethereum, which can then be converted to any fiat currency like USD, RMB and EUD. The founders of Level01 employ smart tokenomics and platform design to drive sustainable long-term growth and efficiency. In simple layman terms, this means this digital ecosystem and its native currency are built to last forever. How is this possible?
Well, are several measures in place:
THE CAP The Cap is a gatekeeper to retaining token value in a healthy digital economy. It is counterproductive to have unlimited tokens because investors are not incentivized to purchase in the short term. Level01’s ICO (Initial Coin Offering) issued its native LVX tokens with the total supply capped at 1,200,000,000 (1.2 Billion) tokens. The sheer size of the issued tokens is large enough to invite global user participation, while the finite amount helps creates scarcity and incentives for people to purchase the tokens immediately. For those doubting, the derivatives market is worth 1.2 quadrillion according to Investopedia, thus our LVX token quantity is actually small and will go up and demand increases.
THE VALUE AND LIQUIDITY Money is a trustworthy unit of account, and store of value with tremendous liquidity. The LVX token meets the very same criteria by virtue of being an ERC20 token on the Ethereum. These tokens enable transparent and fair settlement, because transactions are handled by smart contracts that programmatically disburse returns to trade winners.
To strengthen liquidity and value, the LVX token will be registered on prominent cryptocurrency exchanges worldwide, and be made available for actual trading and exchange with other cryptocurrencies and commodities.
THE WHALES ARE KEPT AWAY Imagine sitting on a seesaw with a whale. There is just no way, you’re going to enjoy the ride because the whale dominates with his weight. The founders of Level01 understand this basic principle and recognize that the true value of the token crowd-sale manifests in its early contributors and diverse community. Every effort is then made to ensure the token sales are distributed to many investors, rather than allowing the concentration of the platform tokens in the hands of single large investors or groups, also known as ‘whales’.
THERE IS TOKEN UTILITY Beyond the promise of a stable trading environment, Level01 rewards early adopters of the token through incentivized staking. LVX tokens can be ‘staked’ by investors to host trading rooms where group-trading events are held, and investors can earn traderoom-hosting commissions. The staked tokens are reimbursed through smart contracts after a staking duration.
Investors are free to use tokens to organize tournaments in daily, weekly, fortnightly and monthly intervals. Tournament host organizers then earn a percentage of tournament fees raised during the event.
These mechanisms encourage investor participation to occur organically at a rate that benefits everyone on the Level01 platform.
THERE IS TRANSPARENCY Level01 investors are privy to transparent market data verified by Thomson Reuters. Historical and real-time data from a credible source empowers investors to make their own financial decisions. On top of that, LVX tokens provide the means to transparent and fair settlement on the Blockchain because it is handled by smart contracts that are programmatically disbursed to trade winners, as trading profits.
These measures secure LVX’s price-stability and make it a viable token or coin for investment. As more users or investors come on board Level01, the global investment market will witness the full potential of a Brokerless Derivatives Exchange.
submitted by Level01Exchange to u/Level01Exchange [link] [comments]

BlockChain Enable a Quadrillion-Dollar Derivatives Market?

BlockChain Enable a Quadrillion-Dollar Derivatives Market?
https://preview.redd.it/iwewapkg8mz11.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=9b52f51960172844af71917aec191dcfd6031bf9
CAN BLOCKCHAIN ENABLE A QUADRILLION-DOLLAR DERIVATIVES MARKET? IT’S A REAL POSSIBILITY. By 2028, the world economy has exploded with exponential economic growth. BlockChain is now the heart of commerce and trade. Investopedia’s valuation on the Derivatives Market now stands true at $1.2 quadrillion. And you are now very rich with your array of futures, derivatives and cryptocurrencies on hand. Isn’t this a nice possibility?
Now, imagine travelling back to 2018.
You are scrolling your news feed. The headlines show in 2017 alone, BlockChain startups have raised $1.2 billion worth initial coin offering (ICOs). ICOs enable startups, to raise money from the general public by allowing them to buy a stake in their business; which comes in a form of a token or digital currency. It looks like the public are beginning to understand the potential of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology.
A Facebook notification pops up on your mobile phone. Your friend has posted an article on your Facebook wall. The article is about Ethereum, the hot new BlockChain technology that is creating even bigger ripples in the finance world than its predecessor BitCoin. It seems that Ethereum is now the birthplace of many decentralized platforms, which raise funds via ICOs. As more funds are raised, these platforms get better and this drives up the value of Ethereum. The top platforms are Golem, Augur, Basic Attention Tokens and Gnosis, which collectively ring in $1.27 billion in market value. The amount of money that has been invested into Ethereum based BlockChain technology shows that people see Blockchain as the future of commerce and finance.
This all sounds good and you’re ready to participate in a hot ICO. But as a possible new investor in an ICO based on the Ethereum blockchain, how do you get started? Which platform and ICO should you consider investing in?
  1. YOU WILL NEED TO GET A WALLET. Wallets are like digital bank accounts, they hold your tokens and other cryptocurrencies you plan to buy and hold. Most ICOs are built on Ethereum smart contracts and your Wallet has to support receiving tokens. In an ICO, you send currency (typically ETH or BTC) to the company issuing a new token and receive the amount of tokens based on the given exchange rate by the company. MyEtherWallet is one of the most popular Ethereum Wallets because it is linked to the BlockChain, has excellent security features, and best of all it gives you full control of your Wallet (unlike other online wallets that are controlled by third party companies). You can get MyEtherWallet here.
  2. RESEARCH EXTENSIVELY ON AVAILABLE ICOS As with any form of investment, you need to do your research and due diligence. Unlike the research on conventional investments that look at statistics, company performance, average daily volume and annual yield, ICOs require a different kind of analysis. Often times, millions of dollars are raised in ICOs with no product or company track record. Most traditional investors would not invest as the risk outweigh the gains from the investment. It feels like a gamble.
How then would you know if an ICO is worth investing into?
First of all, you would need to study its platform concept, market potential and sustainability for long-term growth.
Is it easy for users to adopt and understand?
Do the Founders and Developers of the platform have sound knowledge of economics, inflation, block size, fees, administration, security and human behavior?
Does the crypto-economic system have what it takes to be sustainable?
Who is the team behind the platform? Are they knowledgeable and experienced?
Is this a revolutionary or game-changing product that has massive market potential?
Take Level01 as an example. It is the World’s First Brokerless Derivatives Exchange in Partnership with Thomson Reuters. The concept is innovative, more importantly; it has an enticing proposition because it addresses gaps, issues and problems faced by traditional trading markets. This facilitates a stable, robust and potentially profitable investment eco-system. How so?
Remember Investopedia’s valuation of the derivatives market at a thrilling $1.2 quadrillion? This estimate is debatable because it needed to consider, “notional value”, versus actual market value. The lack of certainty on pricing and not having accurate market data can be frustrating. Brokers also charge a fee for both ends; buying and selling, which makes it expensive to participate in trade. In addition, not everyone relishes in the prospect of understanding financial data, terms and conditions. These factors are barriers to entry that reduces the pool of investors in the derivatives market.
The Founders of Level01 saw all these and sought to develop solutions that can make investing easy, transparent, secure and fair, by using the Blockchain and partnership with financial market leader, Thomson Reuters.
AN APP THAT MAKES ANYONE A BETTER INVESTOR Whether you are a first time investor or an experienced investor, the Level01 App will help you make better investment decisions, save time and get better at investing in the Derivatives Market. Its sleek interface, smart data feed and intuitive features are designed to fit all investor types to make the trading experience as easy as 1, 2, 3.
CHANGING THE GAME WITH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE When you log on, the Level01 platform, you will have FairSenseTM Artificial Intelligence on hand to analyze trade intent patterns of all users on the platform to find the best matches for you. Once a match is found, it employs its proprietary dynamic fair price-balancing algorithm to show fair pricing for both sides of the trade contract. This saves investors time, speeds up trade, and keeps inflation in check with fair pricing.
CREDIBLE AND RELIABLE DATA FEED FROM THOMSON REUTERS Level01 raised the bar further by collaborating with Thomson Reuters. They integrated and enabled live streaming real-time market prices for Forex, Index, Cryptocurrency, Commodities and Stocks directly from Thomson Reuters, a global leader for information and data sources for professional markets. Having a 150-year-old brand name like Thomson Reuters lends tremendous credibility to the data and keeps investors informed of actual value prior to the commencement of the trade.
AUTOMATED SMART CONTRACTS As if that was not enough, the Level01 is designed as an exchange and trading platform with a system of smart contracts that resolves trust, emotion and irresponsibility in an efficient, transparent, automated manner. These automated digital contracts saves time and money for investors so that they can concentrate on analyzing data and deciding on investments.
SUSTAINABLE GROWTH DRIVEN BY USERS You may be thinking by now, that is all well and good, but what are they doing to make this unique Derivatives Exchange sustainable and primed for growth? The designers of Level01 looked towards attracting quality investors by incorporating a fair rating system based on statistics and empowering them with the ability to add value to the network, and derive value for themselves. Level01 rewards users when they participate in the ecosystem. To make it even more enticing, the Level01 platform enables Trade Room Hosting, which allows users to earn commission. These lucrative set points are attractive to users who will jump on board and increase the liquidity base, which of course, benefits everyone.
BETTER FINANCIAL LIQUIDITY Sometimes being able to sell is as important as being able to buy. This means your assets and investments can be easily converted to cash. Level01 gives you full control over your own funds by allowing your deposits and withdrawals to be done instantly. You can also change the native platform LVX tokens between BitCoin and Ethereum for better financial liquidity.
WIDER FINANCIAL PORTFOLIO Level01 allows you to trade both traditional and cryptocurrency market assets to give you greater ease and freedom to plan a diverse portfolio to suit your needs whether you like to play it safe or take profitable risks.
DIVERSE AND EXPERIENCED TEAM An international team with accolades, achievements and awards helms Level01 Derivatives Exchange. There is a mathematician and data analyst, a software engineer and system architect, a highly ranked digital marketing specialist, an expert in corporate operations, a consultant in banking and finance, a key quantitative analyst consultant who over saw $25B AUM, a corporate strategist and brand planning expert and an inventor-CEO with a string of successes under his belt, including founding a successful public listed company in Australia.
GROWING INTEREST Level01 just begun but it is already making waves in the cryptocurrency and investment world. Forums and chat groups are buzzing with conversations as seasoned cryptocurrency investors hop on the bandwagon, eager to sweep up ICOs before the rest of the world notices. Coin Telegraph, which is the top news portal on cryptocurrency, described Level01 partnership with Thomson Reuters as a great game-changer that will allow general public to trade derivatives like a pro using big data previously only available to institutional traders.
Could this be your ticket to making your 2028 the best year ever? As if you invested in Google back in 2004. You can check out more about this upcoming platform here.
submitted by Level01Exchange to u/Level01Exchange [link] [comments]

Investopedia Stock Simulator Getting Started Money Market Funds How Interest Rates Affect the Market Understanding Smart Money Concepts - The Best Forex Training Unknown Facts About How to Trade Forex on News Releases - Investopedia

Charts, forecasts and trading ideas from trader Investopedia. Get unique market insights from the largest community of active traders and investors. Money Market Deposit Account Investopedia On July 16, 2020 By Balmoon Money market account definition investopedia linkedin money market exchange traded funds etfs investopedia how bitcoin works Forex is a portmanteau of foreign currency and exchange. Foreign exchange is the process of changing one currency into another currency for a variety of reasons, usually for commerce, trading, or This course is designed for: beginner traders looking to actively trade currency in the Forex market. Get Forex Trading for Beginners or the other courses from the same one of these categories: Course, Trading, Forex, Beginner, Investopedia, Investopedia Academy, John Jagerson, Trading for Beginners for free on Cloud Share. In the U.S., forex brokers provide leverage up to 50:1 on major currency pairs.   For this example, assume the trader is using 30:1 leverage, as usually that is more than enough leverage for forex day traders. Since the trader has $5,000, and leverage is 30:1, the trader is able to take positions worth up to $150,000.

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Investopedia Stock Simulator Getting Started

Forex is a marketplace where money are exchanged. It is similar to the stock market however very different somehow. There are a couple of helpful bits of info that can assist you in bargaining ... Forex is a market where money are exchanged. It is similar to the stock exchange yet extremely different somehow. There are a couple of helpful bits of information that can help you in discussing ... BECOME A DAY TRADER Proven, profitable strategies you can start using today in any market, from an experienced Wall Street trader. AFTER THIS COURSE, YOU’LL BE ABLE TO + Start trading and enjoy ... How to get registered and join our ba125 stock simulator game. Investopedia Stock Simulator Getting Started For those that have asked to donate some love to the channel: PayPal Donation: https ... Money Market Funds: High Yield, Safe Cash Investments - Duration: 10:02. Michael Jay - Value Investing 39,597 views. 10:02. BPI Money Market Fund: Low-Risk Investment for Short-Term Goals ...