What is Hash Rate? 3 Things to Know (2020 Updated)
What is Hash Rate? 3 Things to Know (2020 Updated)
Bitcoin Hash Functions Explained Simply - The Money Mongers
Bitcoin Hash Functions: A Quick Cryptographic Hash Rundown
HashFish Crypto Miner | Fast mining, Instant withdrawal
BTC Titan - Ultra fast Bitcoins mining software
NiceHash - buy & sell hashing power
NiceHash offers you to buy or sell hashing power directly, no contracts, no limitations, pay-as-you-go if you're a buyer and be-paid-as-you-go if you're a seller. Why bother renting rigs, when you can rent hashing power? NiceHash brings more to renters and rig owners. Visit https://www.nicehash.com today! Simply create order and you are already mining your favorite coin or point your rig to our stratum server and you are already earning bitcoins.
**Launched in July 2014, Viacoin is a next generation digital currency.** It utilizes the Scrypt hash function and a fast block generation of 24sec, meaning transactions x25 faster than Bitcoin! Viacoin currently supports SegWit, Lightning Network and Atomic Cross Chain Swaps. **
Discussion about Primecoin and its infra. Primecoin is a very innovative cryptocurrency, being the 1st non Hash-Cash PoW crypto, naturally scarce (not artificially), with very fast confirmations (1min), elastic readjusting reward & a useful mining (byproducts are primes). Primecoin is sustainable (miners are guaranteed to have revenues), and decentralized (ASIC/FPGA are not particularly advantaged). Sidechain for decentralized data applications (e.g. Storj) currently in development.
AMC Is Massively Increasing Its Hash Power To 3.504 TH/s and Its Revenue To $5,398,450.75
For anyone invested in AMC, or for those who are interested. Pretty cool, and shares right now are only .0006 BTC, so even if you aren't rich in BTC but want to test the waters, this can be a good opportunity. At the very least you can learn about investing in BTC mining without much risk (as long as you don't buy a ton), get some dividends, and have a better reason to pay attention :-) I believe the only place you can get AMC shares right now is Bitfunder.com.
SPRINGFIELD, MO, – May 28, 2013 – VMC a manufacturer of the Fast-Hash Bitcoin Mining Machines is announcing today that they have ordered (Order: #10409) a full batch (10,000) of Avalon chips to build ~29 Fast-Hash-80's for AMC should AMC provide the capital in the next few weeks, this would bring AMC machine total to 39 units. The 39 machines will bring the cooperatives hash power to 3,504,000 MH/s, 3,504 GH/s, or 3.504 TH/s. At the current Difficulty of 12,153,411.71 this will bring the estimated total revenue as of this writing to a total of $19,280.28 per day and a yearly amount of $5,398,450.75. AMC is a hybrid mining and development cooperative and a business unit of VMC.
Commonly touted attributes benefits of bitcoin transactions is that they are free, lighting fast, and of basically whatever size you want. My early research into bitcoin transaction fee and hashing process indicates otherwise. Help me understand, please.
Newcomer questions here: Common attributes listed when describing the benefits of bitcoin are that you can do transactions which are: free, lighting fast, and of basically whatever size you want. These attributes seem incredible and I love the resulting implications if true. However, based on my understanding, the way transaction fees work in the bitcoin system undermine all three of these attributes. My understanding is that when you initiate a transaction you set the fee you are willing to pay for it. The miners will work it into their hash if it makes sense for them (in a video I watched the speaker said as high as 10 cents). Otherwise, the transaction will sit around for a while until it gains enough priority for being old that it gets worked in. Therefore: -A transaction is not free, you have to pay a transaction fee. -A transaction cannot be as small as you want (bitcoin is touted as the perfect tool for microfunding--small microfunding won't work if there is a ten cent transaction fee). -A transaction is not instantaneously fast. It has to be picked up by a miner to be worked into the hash/blockchain. And it won't be picked up if it does not have an adequate transaction fee. So, is my understanding correct in terms of transaction fees and transactions getting 'picked up' by miners? How will transaction fees change over time with traffic, mining reward rate halving, and reaching the 21 million bitcoin. This is all very new to me, I have been on a reading/watching rampage since yesterday to try to understand this fascinating technology but I feel my grasp of it is still very shaky.
11-16 12:37 - 'Faucets is not mining. I run a couple of Antminer S7s and get a miserly $6 per day by selling my puny hashing power (and $50 of BTC per day providing hash to mining ZEC though that's dropping fast)' by /u/bundabrg removed from /r/Bitcoin within 3-8min
Commonly touted attributes benefits of bitcoin transactions is that they are free, lighting fast, and of basically whatever size you want. My early research into bitcoin transaction fee and hashing process indicates otherwise. Help me understand, please. /r/Bitcoin
PRE-ORDER Fast-Hash One Platinum Edition Bitcoin Mining Machine is for sale on cryptothrift.com for Bitcoin and Litecoin https://cryptothrift.com/auctions/crypto-mining-asic/pre-order-fast-hash-one-platinum-edition-bitcoin-mining-machine/
PRE-ORDER Fast-Hash One Platinum Edition Bitcoin Mining Machine is for sale on cryptothrift.com for Bitcoin and Litecoin https://cryptothrift.com/auctions/crypto-mining-asic/pre-order-fast-hash-one-platinum-edition-bitcoin-mining-machine-2/
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/ Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners? And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess. First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
You the HODLer should be the one who controls where your money goes. Your keys, your coins.
You the HODLer should be able to coordinate and make contracts with other people regarding your funds.
You the HODLer should be able to do the above without anyone watching over your shoulder and judging you.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so). So, how does Taproot affect those principles?
Taproot and Your /Coins
Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash). (technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input). However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits! Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh? With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save! And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well! (P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1) Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service! So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win! (even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot) And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!
Taproot and Your Contracts
No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade. So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust. Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade. However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade. In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address. Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants). But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer). Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos). (technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).
Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo
Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code. This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded. And you can do that, with HTLCs, today. Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Privacy. Everyone scraping the Bitcoin blockchain can see any HTLCs, and preimages used to claim them.
This can be mitigated by using offchain techniques so HTLCs are never published onchain in the happy case. Lightning would probably in practice be the easiest way to do this offchain. Of course, there are practical limits to what you can pay on Lightning. If you are buying something expensive, then Lightning might not be practical. For example, the "software" you are activating is really the firmware of a car, and what you are buying is not the software really but the car itself (with the activation of the car firmware being equivalent to getting the car keys).
Even offchain techniques need an onchain escape hatch in case of unresponsiveness! This means that, if something bad happens during payment, the HTLC might end up being published onchain anyway, revealing the fact that some special contract occurred.
And an HTLC that is claimed with a preimage onchain will also publicly reveal the preimage onchain. If that preimage is really the activation key of a software than it can now be pirated. If that preimage is really the activation key for your newly-bought cryptographic car --- well, not your keys, not your car!
Trust requirement. You are trusting the developer that it gives you the hash of an actual valid activation key, without any way to validate that the activation key hidden by the hash is actually valid.
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar". Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given private key to you. Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige). (Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key). So:
Privacy: PTLCs are private even if done onchain. Nobody else can learn what the private key behind the public key is, except you who knows the adaptor signature that when combined with the complete onchain signature lets you know what the private key of the activation key is. Somebody scraping the blockchain will not learn the same information even if all PTLCs are done onchain!
Lightning is still useful for reducing onchain use, and will also get PTLCs soon after Taproot is activated, but even if something bad happens and a PTLC has to go onchain, it doesn't reveal anything!
Trust issues can be proven more easily with a public-private keypair than with a hash-preimage pair.
For example, the developer of the software you are buying could provide a signature signing a message saying "unlock access to the full version for 1 day". You can check if feeding this message and signature to the program will indeed unlock full-version access for 1 day. Then you can check if the signature is valid for the purported pubkey whose private key you will pay for. If so, you can now believe that getting the private key (by paying for it in a PTLC) would let you generate any number of "unlock access to the full version for 1 day" message+signatures, which is equivalent to getting full access to the software indefinitely.
For the car, the manufacturer can show that signing a message "start the engine" and feeding the signature to the car's fimrware will indeed start the engine, and maybe even let you have a small test drive. You can then check if the signature is valid for the purported pubkey whose privkey you will pay for. If so, you can now believe that gaining knowledge of the privkey will let you start the car engine at any time you want.
(pedantry: the signatures need to be unique else they could be replayed, this can be done with a challenge-response sequence for the car, where the car gathers entropy somehow (it's a car, it probably has a bunch of sensors nowadays so it can get entropy for free) and uses the gathered entropy to challenge you to sign a random number and only start if you are able to sign the random number; for the software, it could record previous signatures somewhere in the developer's cloud server and refuse to run if you try to replay a previously-seen signature.)
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script. (technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)
Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable?? Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not. It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash. When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key. So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key. (public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL) And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions. So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort. Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers. For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
Current quantum computers can barely crack prime factorization problem for primes of 5 bits.
The 256-bit elliptic curve use by Bitcoin is, by my (possibly wrong) understanding, equivalent to 4096-bit primes, so you can see a pretty big gap between now (5 bit primes) and what is needed (4096 bit primes).
A lot of financial non-Bitcoin systems use the equivalent of 3072-bit primes or less, and are probably easier targets to crack than the equivalent-to-4096-bit-primes Bitcoin.
Quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin are still far off.
Pay-to-public-key-hash is not as protective as you might think.
We will probably see banks get cracked before Bitcoin, so the banking system is a useful canary-in-a-coal-mine to see whether we should panic about being quantum vulnerable.
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).
If you are a singlesig HODL-only Bitcoin user, Taproot will not affect you positively or negatively. Importantly: Taproot does no harm!
If you use or intend to use multisig, Taproot will be a positive for you.
If you transact onchain regularly using typical P2PKH/P2WPKH addresses, you get a minor reduction in feerates since multisig users will likely switch to Taproot to get smaller tx sizes, freeing up blockspace for yours.
If you are using multiparticipant setups for special systems of trade, Taproot will be a positive for you.
Remember: Lightning channels are multipartiicpiant setups for special systems of lightning-fast offchain trades!
I Wanna Be The Taprooter!
So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!
If you have developer experience especially in C, C++, or related languages
Review the Taproot code! There is one pull request in Bitcoin Core, and one in libsecp256k1. I deliberately am not putting links here, to avoid brigades of nontechnical but enthusiastic people leaving pointless reviews, but if you are qualified you know how to find them!
But I am not a cryptographeBitcoin Core contributomathematician/someone as awesome as Pieter Wuille
That's perfectly fine! The cryptographers have been over the code already and agree the math is right and the implementation is right. What is wanted is the dreary dreary dreary software engineering: are the comments comprehensive and understandable? no misspellings in the comments? variable names understandable? reasonable function naming convention? misleading coding style? off-by-one errors in loops? conditions not covered by tests? accidental mixups of variables with the same types? missing frees? read-before-init? better test coverage of suspicious-looking code? missing or mismatching header guards? portability issues? consistent coding style? you know, stuff any coder with a few years of experience in coding anything might be able to catch. With enough eyes all bugs are shallow!
If you are running a mining pool/mining operation/exchange/custodial service/SPV server
Be prepared to upgrade!
One of the typical issues with upgrading software is that subtle incompatibilities with your current custom programs tend to arise, disrupting operations and potentially losing income due to downtime. If so, consider moving to the two-node setup suggested by gmax, which is in the last section of my previous post. With this, you have an up-to-date "public" node and a fixed-version "private" node, with the public node protecting the private node from any invalid chainsplits or invalid transactions. Moving to this setup from a typical one-node setup should be smooth and should not disrupt operations (too much).
If you are running your own fullnode for fun or for your own wallet
Be prepared to upgrade! The more nodes validating the new rules (even if you are a non-mining node!), the safer every softfork will be!
If you are using an SPV wallet or custodial wallet/service (including hardware wallets using the software of the wallet provider)
Contact your wallet provider / SPV server and ask for a statement on whether they support Taproot, and whether they are prepared to upgrade for Taproot! Make it known to them that Taproot is something you want!
But I Hate Taproot!!
Raise your objections to Taproot now, or forever hold your peace! Maybe you can raise them here and some of the devs (probably nullc, he goes everywhere, even in rbtc!) might be able to see your objections! Or if your objections are very technical, head over to the appropriate pull request and object away!
Maybe you simply misunderstand something, and we can clarify it here!
Or maybe you do have a good objection, and we can make Taproot better by finding a solution for it!
Call courtesy of facemeltersmicros on telegram T.me/facemeltersmicros Circ Supply: 47,844 Total Supply : 900,000 Price $47 Market Cap $2.2m https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/tixl/ Buy on probit exchange (liquidity is here) & Binance Dex MTXLT (later TXL) is the native token of the Private DeFi Platform called Autobahn Network. It can be transferred through the network with zero-fees, reflecting the best features of today's cash. What is Private DeFi? Privacy should be fundamental in financial transactions. However, many existing DeFi platforms, such as Ethereum for example, fail to fulfil this criterion – either partly or completely. The Autobahn Network is one of the first of its kind to truly support private DeFi. What is DeFi about the Autobahn Network? The Autobahn Network will initially focus on the areas of asset tokenisation and providing a second-layer platform for existing assets on other chains. This will provide the foundation for offering further DeFi use cases in the future. The current focus is on the launch of Alphanet, which will be the first production release of the Autobahn Network. The Autobahn Network is a decentralized next-generation, second-layer solution for digital assets. It provides the ability to use any cryptocurrency, including Bitcoin, as an efficient & effective means of world payment. The Autobahn Network employs the most sophisticated technologies to have emerged from the blockchain world over recent years to build a decentralized network, tailored for payments. Bitcoin, and other digital assets, can be sent to the Autobahn Network. Once they are in the network they can then be transferred quickly, privately and with low transaction fees. HOW DOES IT WORK? • Send BTC to the Autobahn Network Gateway • The decentralized nodes hold your BTC via a Threshold Signature Scheme (TSS) • Transfer BTC within the network as often as you like • Withdraw BTC to the main blockchain, if you plan to hold it there • The decentralized nodes release your BTC via TSS To fully appreciate high-speed, you have to experience it yourself. They have developed a fully working Testnet especially for this purpose: https://autobahn.network/testnet The Autobahn Network is developed by the non-profit company - Tixl gGmbH, based in Hamburg (Germany). Tixl raised seed capital of USD $1,250,000 in early 2019 by selling the Tixl Token (MTXLT) to retail investors. Tech behind the Autobahn https://medium.com/tixlcurrency/the-technology-behind-the-autobahn-network-81fdecf41c20 Most of the time the bottleneck is the consensus. Tixl use their own implementation of the Stellar Consensus Protocol (SCP). Since SCP is known to establish consensus within a few seconds, even if there are some more conflicting transactions, nodes will still be able to reach consensus quickly. It’s also known that SCP can deal with high transaction volumes. Although there is no verified statement from the Stellar foundation, there are rumors that SCP can handle 10,000 transactions per second in certain network constellations Project milestones and key links
Proof of concept: True decentralized Bitcoin second layer solution (Bitcoin Testnet) ✅
Assets: TXL and BTC ✅
Tx speed: < 10 seconds
Tx privacy: Altona + usage of Stealthchains to protect sender and receiver ✅
Tx fees: 0 ✅
In the future:
Buy Tixl Token with credit card from the open market on our website
Token supply split (ERC-20 token besides the current BEP-2)
Alphanet Release connected to Bitcoin mainnet (Dec 6, 2020)
Native Wallet Apps for iOS and Android📱
Products with business model to create an ongoing MTXLT demand on top of the Alphanet built by us and our partners.
Find more details on these events in the medium article released today https://link.medium.com/qXfp3zjM57 WHY TIXL? A number of different concepts for improving Bitcoin and the transfer of digital assets in general have been developed, with the ultimate goal of achieving fast and cheap transactions, or to provide privacy. The Tixl Token on the Autobahn Network provides a perfect combination of them all. REVENUE STREAMS Transaction Fees Transactions in the Autobahn Network will be cheap but not completely free. Fees will be paid using in the currency of the asset being transfered. The revenue will then be used to purchase MTXLT on the open market. As a result, fees are indirectly paid in MTXLT. Listing Fees As soon as the Autobahn Network gains adoption, it will become a sought-after platform for other assets. A (monthly) listing fee, to be paid in MTXLT, will also serve to increase the public demand for MTXLT. Additional Services Besides the obvious sources of revenue, other features - like the purchase of nicknames - can also be used to generate revenue. Social media buzz Ivan on Tech about Tixl in "TOP ALTCOINS 2020 - Programmer explains" https://youtu.be/ynyvwZetb8s Something different? Tixl global reserve has been developed to provide extra confidence to investors. Read more here: https://medium.com/tixlcurrency/tixl-global-reserve-tgr-update-c59bee09c66d Other questions Do I need TXL to send and receive BTC and other third-party assets? To ensure the greatest usability, they decided against using TXL directly as "fuel" because it would provide an obstacle to use if you had to buy TXL before you are able to transfer BTC, or other digital assets. The same issue has attracted criticism from users of other networks that support different assets. As a solution, they settled on the idea of allowing transaction fees for certain assets (for example, BTC) to be paid in their native currency. One can send BTC through the Autobahn Network without having to purchase TXL and pay much lower fees than you would on the Bitcoin blockchain itself. How is Autobahn Network secured by Bitcoin? To increase the decentralization of Autobahn Network, a hash representing the current state of the Autobahn Network ledger will be written onto the Bitcoin blockchain regularly. In doing so, the Autobahn Network will increase its trust level by leveraging the most secure and immutable blockchain in the world.
Hey ineffable or skrt, you’re not gonna take this one down ;) Credit ZappedFreeWeekend “About: This is a crack of zapped.cc, the garbage paste by two pasting 14 year olds. After reverse engineering this shitty cheat, we can say without a doubt that this cheat is a pasted compilation of unknowncheats sloppy code. They appear to use the vftable hooker from CSGOSimple as the assets are 1:1. This is one of the most dispicable products and now that they are offering lifetime in exchange for skins/bitcoins, you should know they are probably exit scamming. The cheat is god awful and there are some hilarious bugs. Some of the known bugs are: If you swap weapon too fast or hold click while changing weapons and the aimbot is active on a player, it will get stuck Bunnyhop often misses Knife animations are laggy for no reason Anti-Aim often flicks to expose your real head and can get stuck this way Autowall is extremely broken and will shoot at nothing A LOT FPS drops out of nowhere are MASSIVE And much much more, we could not be bothered to use this garbage more than that. Instructions: 1. Download the DLL file of the crack 2. Ensure that you have www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=48145 or a later version already installed 3. Open CS:GO 4. Inject into your game using any injector of your own choosing. 5. Enjoy the laughter associated from using this pasted garbage!” Do you want to download the crack? Here’s a fuck ton of mirrors I uploaded from the original file the cracker posted. The 7z is slightly more compressed, i added it to avoid the hosts striking based on the hash. Because there’s no way he’s gonna strike all of these. Be warned, the crack sucks. It was a “hey fucktards i cracked your cheat” not a “hey guys download this free cheat i cracked!!”. share.dmca.gripe/mdZv2LGE1W6flt7f.zip anonfile.com/xec6M81bof/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_7z anonfile.com/19ceM617o2/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_zip anonfile.com/Bac1M219o7/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_7z anonfile.com/L7ccM41bo5/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_zip anonfile.com/j5d7M218o3/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_7z anonfile.com/x0d4M01fo7/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_zip anonfile.com/5dd0M214od/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_zip anonfile.com/L6d7M214ob/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_zip anonfile.com/P2daMd10oe/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_7z anonfile.com/h4ecM81bo1/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_7z vshare.is/P5c2M015o8/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_7z vshare.is/T4c5Md10od/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_zip vshare.is/b6daM81eo1/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_7z vshare.is/dbd6M411o4/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_zip vshare.is/ped3Ma10o5/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_7z vshare.is/XfdfMb12o0/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_zip vshare.is/Z1d3M31eo0/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_7z vshare.is/b0e2M31ao4/ZAPPED.CC_CRACKED_zip files.catbox.moe/78zgms.zip files.catbox.moe/a9nzpv.7z mirrorace.com/m/1D0a9 mirrorace.com/m/1D0aa Try all of these. One of them will certainly be still working. And finally, do me a favor and copy paste this whole post into the comments. They can strike one post, no way they’ll strike every comment. thanks bois.
Greetings, community. 👋🏻 Today we will tell you what MultiShield is and what its features in PYRK are. 📌 What is MultiShield? MultiShield is the advanced version of the original DigiShield. DigiShield was created specifically to protect the DigiByte project from the threat posed by multipools that inflated the price of cryptocurrency in case it was too easy to mine. It creates an asymmetric realtime difficulty adjustment, and is now even widely implemented in many other blockchain. Mining complexity is configured separately for each algorithm, depending on the current power distribution. The complexity parameter is changed on each block. This mechanism is called MultiShield. The block generation time in the system is 15 seconds. According to the developers, the MultiShield complexity adjustment mechanism guarantees a “fair twenty percent distribution between all five algorithms” and the detection of any “sudden influx” of computing power. 📌 What are MultiShield features in PYRK? ✅ PYRK platform uses the Multishield difficulty adjustment algorithm to prevent difficulty spike issues resulting from burst mining. PYRK has a 90-second block timing target, meaning mathematically based on the previous blocks the "difficulty" in finding the cryptographic answer for each block will become harder or easier in order to maintain an approximate 90-second block timing. ✅ MultiShield adjusts after each block, rather than once every 2016 blocks (like in Bitcoin). MultiShield is designed to let the difficulty "fall" very fast, in order that the chain doesn't freeze. ✅ MultiShield was originally created to account for such wild fluctuations, so that the blockchain doesn't "freeze" when a large exodus of hash power occurs. It also means miners cannot flood a few consecutive blocks with a high amount of hash power and benefit from low difficulty, giving blocks near instantly one after another before traditional difficulty retargeting occurs. Read more about PYRK solutions here: https://www.pyrk.org https://preview.redd.it/g0d89kbrvp451.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=e8309576922ff46230060d6d38c16af475c41a72
In every 210K mined blocks a planned (programmed) event takes place. This event is called halving. It is a regular reduction of miners’ fee (reward) for a produced block. Bitcoin creator put these halvings in software to keep inflation in check. Most commonly one block is being mined in 9 minutes and 20 seconds. According to this, halving occurs every four years. The Bitcoin network had two halvings: first in 2012 and then in 2016. If we look back and remember how much coins miners could earn in the early history of Bitcoin, it was 50 BTC for one block. Later on, after the first halving, the fee was equal to 25 BTC and the same happened four years after, then the reward was cut down to 12.5 BTC. The next (third) halving may be expected in May 2020. The payoff then will be reduced to 6.25 BTC. This will actually continue till there’s no award left (this will approximately happen in 2140). So why is there a need for halving? If coins are produced very fast or the amount of emitted BTC is not limited, there will be so many Bitcoins in circulation that they will have limited value. Vitalik Buterin once said in his interview with Bitcoin Magazine: «The main reason why this is done is to keep inflation under control.»
What will happen with BTC price after Bitcoin halving?
Like any other cryptocurrency price prediction, the Bitcoin price prediction is always hard to make, so we can just guess looking at a combination of factors. Opinions are divided as follows: some think that the BTC price will go up and others think nothing will generally change and the price will stay the same. There are also skeptics that see the halving as bad luck. They believe that if even 10 percent of miners quit, it might scare away the investors and make them move out their assets. As a result, the Bitcoin price will go down. After the first Bitcoin halving the BTC price grew almost two hundredfold, the second time it grew sevenfold. Both times BTC had increased volatility. But no one can guarantee the same events nowadays. As far as we can see from the previous halvings, they had the same dynamics: the Bitcoin price grew up. This gives some people hope that it will repeat after the next BTC halving in May 2020. What are people’s opinions and predictions regarding the next Bitcoin halving? Let’s have a look. The CEO of Pantera Capital Dan Morehead predicts the rise of BTC after the coming halving:
“It’s right on the trend line, and I think it’s a good shot that by the end of the year, we hit that, and then if you just extrapolate that line out for another year, it’s $122,000 per Bitcoin and in one more year $356,000.”
Tom Lee from Fundstrat Global Advisors posted a part of the report regarding crypto outlook 2020. Here what is said regarding the BTC price in that report:
“For 2020, we see several positive convergences that enhance the use case and also the economic model for crypto and Bitcoin – thus, we believe Bitcoin and crypto total return should exceed that of 2019. In other words, we see strong probability that Bitcoin gains >100% in 2020.”
Bobby Lee (co-founder and CEO of BTC China) also expressed his opinion via twit saying:
“After next #BlockRewardHalving in Spring of 2020, new #Bitcoin output will drop again, to just 900 BTC/day. I predict #HashPower will continue to grow, with ever higher amounts of investment in mining (electricity costs). If that amount reaches $54m/day, we‘ll have $BTC at $60k.”
Jason A. Williams had an “unpopular opinion”:
“Unpopular Opinion – Bitcoin halving in May 2020 won’t do anything to the price. It will be a non-event.”
John McAfee is insanely positive as usual when speaking about the Bitcoin price prediction:
“When I predicted Bitcoin at $500,000 by the end of 2020, it used a model that predicted $5,000 at the end of 2017. BTC has accelerated much faster than my model assumptions. I now predict Bitcoin at $1 million by the end of 2020. I will still eat my d\ck if wrong.”*
Paolo Ardoino (Bitfinex & Tether Chief Technology Officer) said the following in his interview to U.Today:
“The halving is expected to occur next year, and I think it’s reasonable to expect an increase in the price of Bitcoin. I won’t do any price predictions myself and this is not financial or other advice from me or from Bitfinex or Tether, but I don’t see any reason for Bitcoin not hitting $100,000 within the next few years. That would already be an amazing goal for such technology.”
Tone Vays (Financial analyst) is less ambitious. That’s what he thinks:
“Technically, everything is in play until end of 2020, after that sub $5,000 is not likely. Worst Case Scenario: prices drop to $5k into the halving, then after halving 70% of miners shut down due to negative revenue, #Bitcoin spirals down in price but then rises from the dead!”
Petros Anagnostou, the founder of Crypto Solutions declares:
“My prediction: Bitcoin will reach $12,000 before the end of this year. And will reach a price of $50,000 – $100,000 by the end of 2020.”
To summarize, the forthcoming BTC halving 2020 will be a kind of guarantee that there will be no inflation, and investments will be profitable. At the same time, it is being one of the key factors responsible for the growth of the Bitcoin price. When it comes to miners, they usually feel stressed about it as to keep their income at the same level they will need to invest in new technical equipment. As for those who don’t mine but just buy Bitcoin to keep BTC as a cryptocurrency investment, the BTC halving will barely have any effect on them. No one can predict what exactly will happen after the upcoming BTC halving. It is always up to you either be on the optimistic side or be one of the doubters. This article does not contain investment advice or recommendations. Every investment and trading move involves risk. You are the only one responsible for making investment decisions.
Hi, everyone! 👋🏻 Today we will tell you a little bit about the PYRK ecosystem. As many of you might know, blockchain ecosystems are the groups of actors who interact with one another within the world of blockchain and with the surrounding off-chain world. You can ask why do we need that? This is why. First of all, it helps to build many technical and technological solutions. It provides an ability to build partnerships. Joining the network you’ll be able to enter the international market. And, of course, environmental development helps you to improve your business reputation and your status. 📌 PYRK is a privacy-centric cryptographic currency based on the work of Bitcoin, Dash, and Digibyte. 📌 Many modern cryptocurrencies use a single algorithm Proof-of-Work mechanism, which can lead to 51% attack avenues on currencies. Instead of trying to use algorithms which are ASIC resistant, we propose to use algorithms which have had ASIC miners for quite some time. These are: SHA256, Scrypt, and X11. Thus, there is a far less chance of any single person gaining a majority hash rate share. 📌 Moreover, PYRK uses the Multishield difficulty adjustment algorithm to prevent difficulty spike issues resulting from burst mining. MultiShield is designed to let the difficulty "fall" very fast, in order that the chain doesn't freeze. 💡 A future improvement planned for Pyrk is Simple Tokens. This is similar to the SLP (Simple Ledger Protocol) used by Bitcoin Cash. 💪🏻 As you can see, the system is growing and developing very fast. Become a part of our community! Take advantage of our inventive and growing ecosystem! Check out PYRK website to know more about the project: https://www.pyrk.org Read the Whitepaper to learn more about PYRK ecosystem: https://www.pyrk.org/Pyrk-Whitepaper.pdf https://preview.redd.it/zdxbw99zpk051.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=6f759439a58bcf5aaaad074dc20f870ce204dd05
I wrote a csv library last year and it turned out like crap.
Got some good feedback from Reddit. But, the library was poorly designed, became buggy, and was generally hard to maintain.
I've used fast-cpp-csv-parser in the past. It's great (and fast!) but requires the user to know a lot at compile time, e.g., column_count, column_names etc.
I wanted to see what performance could be achieved by parsing single-threaded and managing internal objects with std::string_view.
It seems to be pretty hard to find benchmarks for (or comparisons between) existing CSV parsers in C++.
Each CSV parser (including this one) provides a different interface to read files and access rows.
Some CSV parsers are lenient w.r.t RFC-4180 compliance while others perform strict checking, sometimes throwing exceptions on compliance failures.
Some CSV parsers provide performance measurements on either programmatically generated data or simple (now unavailable) test CSV files.
For this library, I decided to use publicly available datasets from Kaggle.com
I'd love your feedback on this library. Specifically, I'd like to know if the performance measurements (see below) are competitive. Any tips on how to improve ifstream read speeds or tokenization would also be greatly appreciated. Following this blog post by Daniel Lemire, I haven't bothered with mmap.
Single-threaded - No additional worker threads.
Lazy evaluated - Tokenization is not performed until the row is read using read_row().
Single header file - Just include
The benchmarks program measures two execution times:
Measurement 1 (M1): Load input CSV file and build the list of lines (std::vector).
Measurement 2 (M2): Iterate over all the lines, tokenize each line and construct a std::vector> rows list.
Methods of "difficulty retargeting" in the PYRK project
Hello. 👋🏻 Today we will tell you about MultiShield and difficulty retargeting. 📌 In mining with the Proof-of-Work algorithm, the goal determines the complexity and, therefore, affects the time required to find a solution. As a result, logical questions arise, why is difficulty regulated, who corrects it, and how? 📌 Blocks in the blockchain are generated every n minutes. This determines the frequency of issuing the currency and the speed of settlement of transactions. It must remain constant not only for a short period, but also for many decades. The power of computers is growing rapidly and the number of mining participants is also constantly changing. Given these changes, the block generation time should remain unchanged. For this, the complexity of mining must be adjusted. 📌 For this, there is a retargeting of complexity, which occurs automatically and on each node independently. If the network finds blocks faster than every n minutes, the complexity increases (the goal decreases). If block detection is slower than expected, complexity decreases (target increases). 🛡 PYRK MultiShield solution 🔹 PYRK has a 90-second block timing target, meaning mathematically based on the previous blocks the "difficulty" in finding the cryptographic answer for each block will become harder or easier in order to maintain an approximate 90-second block timing. Miners sometimes change between the blockchains that they mine, especially on smaller chains, in order to maximize profits. For chains that have sporadic mining bursts this can cause long periods of extremely high difficulty, which results in exceedingly long block times. 🔹 MultiShield adjusts after each block, rather than once every 2016 blocks (like originally in Bitcoin). MultiShield is designed to let the difficulty "drop" very fast, in order that the chain doesn't freeze. MultiShield was originally created to account for such wild fluctuations, so that the blockchain doesn't "freeze" when a large exodus of hash power occurs. It also means miners cannot flood a few consecutive blocks with a high amount of hash power and benefit from low difficulty, giving blocks near instantly one after another before traditional difficulty retargeting occurs. Read more about PYRK solutions here: https://www.pyrk.org https://preview.redd.it/oznnop8dld151.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=9dfad90a0afce76c23a3484606b5c28bb9916ed3
Review and Prospect of Crypto Economy-Development and Evolution of Consensus Mechanism (2)
https://preview.redd.it/a51zsja94db51.png?width=567&format=png&auto=webp&s=99e8080c9e9b1fb5e11cbd70f915f9cb37188f81 Foreword The consensus mechanism is one of the important elements of the blockchain and the core rule of the normal operation of the distributed ledger. It is mainly used to solve the trust problem between people and determine who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining the effective unification of the system in the blockchain system. Thus, it has become an everlasting research hot topic in blockchain. This article starts with the concept and role of the consensus mechanism. First, it enables the reader to have a preliminary understanding of the consensus mechanism as a whole; then starting with the two armies and the Byzantine general problem, the evolution of the consensus mechanism is introduced in the order of the time when the consensus mechanism is proposed; Then, it briefly introduces the current mainstream consensus mechanism from three aspects of concept, working principle and representative project, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the mainstream consensus mechanism; finally, it gives suggestions on how to choose a consensus mechanism for blockchain projects and pointed out the possibility of the future development of the consensus mechanism. Contents First, concept and function of the consensus mechanism 1.1 Concept: The core rules for the normal operation of distributed ledgers 1.2 Role: Solve the trust problem and decide the generation and maintenance of new blocks 1.2.1 Used to solve the trust problem between people 1.2.2 Used to decide who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining effective unity in the blockchain system 1.3 Mainstream model of consensus algorithm Second, the origin of the consensus mechanism 2.1 The two armies and the Byzantine generals 2.1.1 The two armies problem 2.1.2 The Byzantine generals problem 2.2 Development history of consensus mechanism 2.2.1 Classification of consensus mechanism 2.2.2 Development frontier of consensus mechanism Third, Common Consensus System Fourth, Selection of consensus mechanism and summary of current situation 4.1 How to choose a consensus mechanism that suits you 4.1.1 Determine whether the final result is important 4.1.2 Determine how fast the application process needs to be 4.1.2 Determining the degree to which the application requires for decentralization 4.1.3 Determine whether the system can be terminated 4.1.4 Select a suitable consensus algorithm after weighing the advantages and disadvantages 4.2 Future development of consensus mechanism Last lecture review: Chapter 1 Concept and Function of Consensus Mechanism plus Chapter 2 Origin of Consensus Mechanism Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms (Part 1) Figure 6 Summary of relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms 📷 https://preview.redd.it/9r7q3xra4db51.png?width=567&format=png&auto=webp&s=bae5554a596feaac948fae22dffafee98c4318a7 Source: Hasib Anwar, "Consensus Algorithms: The Root Of The Blockchain Technology" The picture above shows 14 relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms summarized by a geek Hasib Anwar, including PoW (Proof of Work), PoS (Proof of Stake), DPoS (Delegated Proof of Stake), LPoS (Lease Proof of Stake), PoET ( Proof of Elapsed Time), PBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance), SBFT (Simple Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DBFT (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph), Proof-of-Activity (Proof of Activity), Proof-of- Importance (Proof of Importance), Proof-of-Capacity (Proof of Capacity), Proof-of-Burn ( Proof of Burn), Proof-of-Weight (Proof of Weight). Next, we will mainly introduce and analyze the top ten consensus mechanisms of the current blockchain. 》POW -Concept: Work proof mechanism. That is, the proof of work means that it takes a certain amount of computer time to confirm the work. -Principle: Figure 7 PoW work proof principle 📷 https://preview.redd.it/xupacdfc4db51.png?width=554&format=png&auto=webp&s=3b6994641f5890804d93dfed9ecfd29308c8e0cc The PoW represented by Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 algorithm function, which is a 256-bit hash algorithm in the password hash function family: Proof of work output = SHA256 (SHA256 (block header)); if (output of proof of work if (output of proof of work >= target value), change the random number, recursive i logic, continue to compare with the target value. New difficulty value = old difficulty value* (time spent by last 2016 blocks /20160 minutes) Target value = maximum target value / difficulty value The maximum target value is a fixed number. If the last 2016 blocks took less than 20160 minutes, then this coefficient will be small, and the target value will be adjusted bigger, if not, the target value will be adjusted smaller. Bitcoin mining difficulty and block generation speed will be inversely proportional to the appropriate adjustment of block generation speed. -Representative applications: BTC, etc. 》POS -Concept: Proof of stake. That is, a mechanism for reaching consensus based on the holding currency. The longer the currency is held, the greater the probability of getting a reward. -Principle: PoS implementation algorithm formula: hash(block_header) = Coin age calculation formula: coinage = number of coins * remaining usage time of coins Among them, coinage means coin age, which means that the older the coin age, the easier it is to get answers. The calculation of the coin age is obtained by multiplying the coins owned by the miner by the remaining usage time of each coin, which also means that the more coins you have, the easier it is to get answers. In this way, pos solves the problem of wasting resources in pow, and miners cannot own 51% coins from the entire network, so it also solves the problem of 51% attacks. -Representative applications: ETH, etc. 》DPoS -Concept: Delegated proof of stake. That is, currency holding investors select super nodes by voting to operate the entire network , similar to the people's congress system. -Principle: The DPOS algorithm is divided into two parts. Elect a group of block producers and schedule production. Election: Only permanent nodes with the right to be elected can be elected, and ultimately only the top N witnesses can be elected. These N individuals must obtain more than 50% of the votes to be successfully elected. In addition, this list will be re-elected at regular intervals. Scheduled production: Under normal circumstances, block producers take turns to generate a block every 3 seconds. Assuming that no producer misses his order, then the chain they produce is bound to be the longest chain. When a witness produces a block, a block needs to be generated every 2s. If the specified time is exceeded, the current witness will lose the right to produce and the right will be transferred to the next witness. Then the witness is not only unpaid, but also may lose his identity. -Representative applications: EOS, etc. 》DPoW -Concept: Delayed proof of work. A new-generation consensus mechanism based on PoB and DPoS. Miners use their own computing power, through the hash algorithm, and finally prove their work, get the corresponding wood, wood is not tradable. After the wood has accumulated to a certain amount, you can go to the burning site to burn the wood. This can achieve a balance between computing power and mining rights. -Principle: In the DPoW-based blockchain, miners are no longer rewarded tokens, but "wood" that can be burned, burning wood. Miners use their own computing power, through the hash algorithm, and finally prove their work, get the corresponding wood, wood is not tradable. After the wood has accumulated to a certain amount, you can go to the burning site to burn the wood. Through a set of algorithms, people who burn more wood or BP or a group of BP can obtain the right to generate blocks in the next event segment, and get rewards (tokens) after successful block generation. Since more than one person may burn wood in a time period, the probability of producing blocks in the next time period is determined by the amount of wood burned by oneself. The more it is burned, the higher the probability of obtaining block rights in the next period. Two node types: notary node and normal node. The 64 notary nodes are elected by the stakeholders of the dPoW blockchain, and the notarized confirmed blocks can be added from the dPoW blockchain to the attached PoW blockchain. Once a block is added, the hash value of the block will be added to the Bitcoin transaction signed by 33 notary nodes, and a hash will be created to the dPow block record of the Bitcoin blockchain. This record has been notarized by most notary nodes in the network. In order to avoid wars on mining between notary nodes, and thereby reduce the efficiency of the network, Komodo designed a mining method that uses a polling mechanism. This method has two operating modes. In the "No Notary" (No Notary) mode, all network nodes can participate in mining, which is similar to the traditional PoW consensus mechanism. In the "Notaries Active" mode, network notaries use a significantly reduced network difficulty rate to mine. In the "Notary Public Activation" mode, each notary public is allowed to mine a block with its current difficulty, while other notary public nodes must use 10 times the difficulty of mining, and all normal nodes use 100 times the difficulty of the notary public node. Figure 8 DPoW operation process without a notary node 📷 https://preview.redd.it/3yuzpemd4db51.png?width=500&format=png&auto=webp&s=f3bc2a1c97b13cb861414d3eb23a312b42ea6547 -Representative applications: CelesOS, Komodo, etc. CelesOS Research Institute丨DPoW consensus mechanism-combustible mining and voting 》PBFT -Concept: Practical Byzantine fault tolerance algorithm. That is, the complexity of the algorithm is reduced from exponential to polynomial level, making the Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm feasible in practical system applications. -Principle: Figure 9 PBFT algorithm principle 📷 https://preview.redd.it/8as7rgre4db51.png?width=567&format=png&auto=webp&s=372be730af428f991375146efedd5315926af1ca First, the client sends a request to the master node to call the service operation, and then the master node broadcasts other copies of the request. All copies execute the request and send the result back to the client. The client needs to wait for f+1 different replica nodes to return the same result as the final result of the entire operation. Two qualifications: 1. All nodes must be deterministic. That is to say, the results of the operation must be the same under the same conditions and parameters. 2. All nodes must start from the same status. Under these two limited qualifications, even if there are failed replica nodes, the PBFT algorithm agrees on the total order of execution of all non-failed replica nodes, thereby ensuring security. -Representative applications: Tendermint Consensus, etc. Next Lecture: Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms (Part 2) + Chapter 4 Consensus Mechanism Selection and Status Summary CelesOS As the first DPOW financial blockchain operating system, CelesOS adopts consensus mechanism 3.0 to break through the "impossible triangle", which can provide high TPS while also allowing for decentralization. Committed to creating a financial blockchain operating system that embraces supervision, providing services for financial institutions and the development of applications on the supervision chain, and formulating a role and consensus ecological supervision layer agreement for supervision. The CelesOS team is dedicated to building a bridge between blockchain and regulatory agencies/financial industry. We believe that only blockchain technology that cooperates with regulators will have a real future. We believe in and contribute to achieving this goal. 📷Website https://www.celesos.com/ 📷Telegram https://t.me/celeschain 📷Twitter https://twitter.com/CelesChain 📷Reddit https://www.reddit.com/useCelesOS 📷Medium https://medium.com/@celesos 📷Facebook https://www.facebook.com/CelesOS1 📷Youtube https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1Xsd8wU957D-R8RQVZPfGA
Greetings, community! 👋🏻 Today we will tell you about the PYRK mining features in the unstable crypto world. 📉 The crypto market is not stable. However, unlike the stock market, the crypto market, especially individual coins, depends on the hype, rumors around them, and more. This contributes to massive purchases or sales of coins, price fluctuations, hype leads new miners, anti-hype - contributes to their outflow. 📈 Changing the number of miners affects the network load. A sudden increase in the number of miners leads to an increase in computing power, which makes mining too easy. A quick and sudden outflow of miners leads to a sharp increase in the complexity of mining. 📊 That is why PYRK decided to use the Multishield technology, originally developed by Digibyte. 🔗 Multishield is a "difficulty retargeting" method to maintain the "average" block timing, by automatically changing the complexity of mining on the network. The idea being that as there is more hash-power provided by the miners it needs to become harder and harder to find the blocks. ✔️ Pyrk has a 90-second block timing target, meaning mathematically based on the previous blocks the "difficulty" in finding the cryptographic answer for each block will become harder or easier in order to maintain an approximate 90-second block timing. The original Bitcoin adjusts difficulty every 2016 blocks. However, MultiShield adjusts after each block, rather than once every 2016 blocks. ✔️ MultiShield is designed to drop the difficulty fast to ensure that the chain doesn't freeze. MultiShield was originally created to account for such wild fluctuations, so that the blockchain doesn't "freeze" when a large exodus of hash power occurs. It also means miners cannot flood a few consecutive blocks with a high amount of hash power and benefit from low difficulty, giving blocks near instantly one after another before traditional difficulty retargeting occurs. Find out more about PYRK mining solutions: https://www.pyrk.org https://preview.redd.it/ea17vbbk3ab51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=8472c6a89755d39845e5e901f698fe353c3fac21
[UPDATE] Towards a fast single-threaded CSV parser in C++11
I made this post a few days ago asking for advise regarding my implementation of a single-threaded CSV parser. GitHub link: https://github.com/p-ranav/csv2 Thanks for all your feedback. Now, this parser:
Memory maps the input CSV file (or parses from string if content already in memory)
Parses without allocations
Provides iterators for rows and cells
It's much faster now: This benchmark measures the average execution time (of 5 runs after 3 warmup runs) for csv2 to memory-map the input CSV file and iterate over every cell in the CSV.
Binance Support Number ☞ +𝟏 (𝟖𝟒𝟒) 𝟗𝟎𝟕𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 Binance Customer Support :Groundbreaking-Lab87
Binance Support Number +𝟏 (𝟖𝟒𝟒) 𝟗𝟎𝟕𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 Binance Customer Support :Groundbreaking-Lab87
Today, in the domain of everything automated and done through the web, people are trading money related structures through the web as well. With respect to the web, one of the most praised subjects of this thousand years discussed is advanced types of cash. With the help of Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑, these fiscal structures are made and traded and the amount of customers is basically on the rising. Regardless, like some other trading, bitcoin trading also has their high focuses and depressed spots and their own game plan of concludes that ought to be followed. Trading reliably passes on a great deal of risk, yet if one is adequately clever and acknowledges how to manage the threats suitably, by then they can without a very remarkable stretch be productive at it. A segment of the things that one ought to recollect while trading Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 are recorded underneath: Make a course of action There should be a sensible plan about when to start and when to stop. Trading straight ahead without having any game plan can be vile for advantages and mishap balance. It is best in class that a target level is picked, when advantages should be assembled and when to stop to restrict disasters. People should be kept aware of the impressive number of upsides and drawbacks and basically all the trading designs that are going on in the market. Trading each day isn't proposed considering the way that particular enormous sellers are reliably out there, keeping down to get the legit vendors submit a blunder. Danger the administrators People ought to use danger the board gadgets and perceive how to spread the risk absolutely through a trading portfolio. This will allow consistent and huge increases to happen all through a particular period. In like manner, they ought to recall that trading the high-chance market with an edge can incite more prominent hardships. Or maybe, making humbler advantages in a low to coordinate risk market can make them extraordinary bitcoin sellers. Do whatever it takes not to buy all trading news Various people before trading will all in all read the news related to grandstand designs and when and where to trade pieces. As a general rule these pieces can be lopsided and can have an uneven evaluation. This can incite horrible decisions and perplexed data about the bitcoin trading circumstance. Or maybe, people should get some answers concerning cash related markets and how to restrain the risk pieces which can help with trading progressively splendid the long stretch. Perceive stunts Much equivalent to some other financial industry, Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 and other cryptographic currency markets are similarly stacked up with stunts, where various social occasions are scanning for Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 and honest vendors. No one ought to hold onto any condition whether or not deceived with a more prominent advantage scene. Think before trading in light of the fact that the Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 are not ensured and if they are lost to a stunt, it is amazingly improbable the situation can be reexamined. Ceaselessly watch out on new pursuits or endless theories which would all have the option to be an indication of deceiving. In case one is a cryptotrader and has the Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑, by then these centers can be valuable in productive trading. Trading Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 at the we buy any bitcoin site is the most secure zone to trade uninhibitedly with no powerless peril and with complete course. Bitcoin cash is an advanced cash fork of Bitcoin incredible. It was made in august 2017. It is significant that Bitcoin cash assembles the size of squares, which allows more trades to be taken care of. Bitcoin mining is the method by which trades are checked and added to the open record (known as the square chain). It is furthermore the techniques through which new Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 are released. The route toward mining bitcoin cash. You ought to consider how bitcoin cash is mined. There are two essential activities included:
Burrowing for squares.
Extension of trades to squares.
Burrowing for squares
When burrowing for squares, excavators use their handling ability to find new squares. The new squares are to be added to the square chain. The entire system is under 'confirmation of work' show. Exactly when another square is discovered, the diggers who made the disclosure are repaid richly. At present the prize goes at 12.5 Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑. There are various helpers available too.
Extension of trades to squares
The ensuing stage incorporates adding trades to squares. Exactly when another square is discovered, the social event of excavators at risk for the exposure become brief despots of that square. Right when an excavator needs to send some bitcoin cash to another, he won't do it truly. It is a trade that must be added to the squares in the chain. Diggers for the most part charge a cost if you need your trade added to the squares. It is after the development that the trade is respected wrapped up. It is significant that both cash and bitcoin use the proportional SHA256 hashing count. This suggests they fight for hashing power from a comparative social event of diggers. Bitcoin cash is in any case dynamically advantageous to mine. The top diggers of cash are ViaBTC, AntPool, BTC.top, BTC.com among others. The mining profitability of the coin depends upon the estimation of the coin, its costs and the difficulty related with the mining. Inconvenience in mining augmentations as more excavators contribute their hash rate to the coin. This prompts lessened mining profit. Starting at now, the coin has the second - most essential 24-hour trading volume. It stays at $1.2 billion.It is in like manner amazingly consoling to mine the cash (BCH) in light of the fact that exchanges, for instance, Bithumb, Bitfinex and HitBTC license the bitcoin cash to be spared, pulled back and moreover to be traded. Bitcoin cash is based on pivoting an example where very few online brokers recognize the bitcoin. This will be made possible by grasping more noteworthy square sizes. It will in like manner decrease to get SegWit. With these instruments set up, the coin will scale up so its square chain supports progressively total trades. This is implied as on-chain scaling. The path toward mining cash isn't as tangled a similar number of would think. Two or three traditions and strategies ought to be viewed and the general method will give out the bitcoin cash. It is fundamental to observe that bitcoin was the first since perpetually decentralized cryptocurrency.Corda is a response for any the disintegration in the Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 business through not simply passing on the unfathomable early assurance of the Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 advancement yet also keeping an eye on business necessities for interoperability similarly as security. For instance, it enables associations to execute honestly by clearing the over the top gratings that are locked in with any business trades. Additionally, it guarantees all the business parties that they are reliably in a condition of concordance, which hence engages passionate efficiency benefits for exercises in the stunning industry. In order to grasp what the Corda adventure is about, we should tunnel further looking at what it includes, its favorable circumstances, and how it achieves the insurance it ensures. What is Corda? Rapidly, Corda is an open source adventure in the Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 business arranged by the R3 social order. With it being a consequence of the organized exertion between advancement assistants and cash related establishments, Corda was arranged unequivocally concentrating on business from the start to fill various necessities. These include: Genuinely arrange into affiliations systems. Empower a fast sending of new system. Engage a smooth change to new strategies. As a phase, Corda doesn't have any computerized money worked in it, however rather it is one that controls existing and showed system and advancement. Taking everything into account, Corda doesn't require mining style accord. Such results to the proximity of amazing cost related with little business advantage. Favorable circumstances of Corda in the Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 World Considering its recently referenced organized explanation, the Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 world ought to watch Corda-for has brought into reality logically beneficial outcomes in the Binance Customer Care Number 𝟏𝟖𝟒𝟒-𝟗𝟎𝟕-𝟎𝟓𝟖𝟑 world. The critical ones are: Engaging social occasions to execute honestly Through its bleeding edge cryptographic systems, Corda has ensured that quick trade of critical worth can effectively happen similarly as structures are in comprehension. These consequently help in clearing costs which therefore supports and starts the proximity of direct trades between parties included. Ensuring and holding security over trade history-With the upkeep
07-11 13:35 - 'Weekly dose of 1 Healthy, 2 Wealthy, 3 Wise - "Consider the End and Live to Fullest"' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/HashTalk_Markets removed from /r/Bitcoin within 7177-7187min
''' A shorter version of HWW this week. Yet one of the most powerful weekly versions we have produced. Please let us know if you enjoyed this newsletter by giving feedback and sharing it 1- On Health >"Life Goes On" ---With No replay, No rewind life is moving fast ahead. Be Calm, Be Strong and spending some time with your loved ones is really relaxable for us :) 2- On Wealth > USD Paralysis 3- On Wisdom > "AI & Your Legacy" 4- Lastly we have covered "Important & Developing Stories Read More : [[link]2 ''' Weekly dose of 1 Healthy, 2 Wealthy, 3 Wise - "Consider the End and Live to Fullest" Go1dfish undelete link unreddit undelete link Author: HashTalk_Markets 1: hasht*lk.s***tac*.com**/1*h*a*th-2-wealth*3-wis*-con*ide* 2: h*sht**k.s*b*tack*com/p*1*he*lth*2*wea*th-3-wi*e-cons*der]*^1 Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
When Satoshi gave the world Bitcoin back in 2009, it was easy enough to measure hashrate in hashes per second because the computing power on the Bitcoin network was still relatively low. You could mine Bitcoin on your home computer and it was quite possible and likely that you would occasionally earn the then 50 BTC block reward every so often. The hash function will only be applied once to confirm if the requester did the required amount of work and if the solution is good or not. If the provider confirms the solution is good, the requester can access the service. This is the system at the heart of every proof-of-work based algorithm. Bitcoin Mining And Bitcoin Hash So let’s see Bitcoin hash function, i.e., SHA-256. What Is Bitcoin Hash? The US National Security Agency (NSA) developed the SHA-256 hashing algorithm in 2001 which is the primary hash function used by Bitcoin’s blockchain. This particular hash function is used because of these properties: Unique hash value: For every input, it produces a As much as Bitcoin had a great 2017, Ethereum’s year was just as impressive. It went from a currency worth single digits at the start of the year to being worth more than $1,200 in the early Fast Bitcoin miner for Laptop. With one button your can start mining bitcoins! Easy bitcoin address setup. Every 4-5 days you can withdraw your mined bitcoins. No fees! Get massive hashing power for mining Bitcoin from your own pc with our unique algorithm. Approximately after 4-5 days you mining 0.005 BTC.
A brief and simple introduction to the hash function and how blockchain solutions use it for proof of work (mining) and data integrity (Merkle Trees). ... Bitcoin Coding and Software - The Block ... Earn bitcoin mining 2020 fast free bitcoin signup bonus 500Gh/s Daily Earn Free Bitcoin Fast legit Earning & Help everyone. ... Instant Hash rate increase.Enjoy Bitcoin. Loading... Earn bitcoin fast - how to earn 1 bitcoin daily New Best Site - Urdu Hind - Dark hash - Arshad Khan Link = https://bit.ly/2PFhRwS Whatsapp number = 03064486965 Email Address = muhammadarshadkhan75 ... It's a new year and we are happy to present the updated version of the blockchain unconfirmed transaction hack. it's the best way to start your year by earning bitcoins daily directly to your wallet. Earn 5 BTC Satoshi 480 Daily Fast Claim Bitcoin Faucet with immediate payment on your account! 3 Minutes Time! Claim 480 daily time. Visit here: https://bit.ly/32pMAp1 Faucet Pay Wallet: https ...